It consists of a pair of closely spaced electrically isolated electrodes that protrude into the exhaust flow. Moreover, the current research characterized the impact of different engine operating conditions on radiation heat transfer. Technical Paper Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. In this work, two production piston bowls are adapted for use in a single cylinder research engine: Current research evaluates the effect of a dedicated injection strategy to enhance combustion process when low swirl is used. Journal Article Growing awareness about CO2 emissions and their environmental implications are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency as criteria to design internal combustion engines ICE.
In particular, exhaust gas recirculation EGR has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length LOL. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. A nephelometer was used to characterize the PM emissions. Two geometric parameters and three different operating conditions are considered. Technical Paper Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code is performed on a set of different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of two-stroke engines in achieving a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions compared to four-stroke diesel baselines. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation EGR. In particular, in-cylinder optical thickness KL was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color pyrometry. Journal Article In the last two decades engine research has been mainly focused on reducing pollutant emissions. In this work, two production piston bowls are adapted for use in a single cylinder research engine: Mass measurements from the nephelometer were compared with gravimetric filter measurements, and particulate size measurements were compared with scanning electron microscope SEM photos of particulates captured on filters. One electrode is given a voltage bias of V while the other is the signal electrode. The engine was run at rpm at the Ford world-wide mapping point with an overall equivalence ratio of 0. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. Technical Paper A new electronic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter PM emitted in engine exhaust. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: Journal Article A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. Journal Article Cooled exhaust gas recirculation EGR is widely used in diesel engines to control engine out NOx oxides of nitrogen emissions. The sensor response was compared with an opacity meter and with gravimetric filter measurements. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls.
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