The most common fatal diseases are intestinal diarrheal and digestive diseases and respiratory pneumonia and tuberculosis. Manufacturing Industrial development in Botswana has been limited by the high costs of power and water, the lack of appropriate management and labour skills, and the small domestic market. The author Bessie Head —86 wrote novels in English that reflect the contemporary realities and history of Serowe. Since the population has grown, exceeding one million in the early s and approaching two million in the early 21st century. Smaller numbers of Mbanderu and Herero have greater numbers of close relatives across the border in Namibia.
A small stock exchange has been set up. The Botswana National Front later became the main opposition, growing in strength especially on urban councils from the s until , when some members left to form the Botswana Congress Party; since then both parties have served as the primary opposition to the ruling party. Masire was faced with such internal issues as a high rate of unemployment and the increasing gap between urban rich and rural poor, as well as with international concerns; between and Botswana suffered from upheavals in South Africa when South African troops raided the Frontline States. In a coalition of Tswana chiefdoms led by Sechele I resisted Afrikaner incursions, and after about eight years of intermittent tensions and hostilities, eventually came to a peace agreement in Potchefstroom in The oral traditions of Herero and Mbanderu pastoralists, west of the Okavango, relate how they were split apart from their Mbandu parent stock by 17th-century Tswana cattle-raiding from the south. Khama III reigned — was the first of the Tswana chiefs to make Christianity a state religion, and changed a great deal of Tswana customary law as a result. The seat of government was moved in from Mafikeng in South Africa, to the newly established Gaborone , which is located near Botswana's border with South Africa. The country has 3 main diamond mines, at Orapa, Lethlakane, and Jwaneng. A new administrative capital was rapidly built at Gaborone. Trade unions have had limited success penetrating the paid employment sector in Botswana. The birth rate was Manufacturing activity up to the s largely consisted of meat processing at Lobatse in the south. History The history of Botswana is in general the history of the Kalahari area, intermediate between the more populated savanna of the north and east and the less populated steppe of the south and west. The length of Botswana's border is 4, kilometers 2, miles , and its neighbors are Namibia to the west, Zimbabwe to the east, and South Africa to the south. The age and gender composition of the country is weighted by an increasingly youthful population: The family had a home base in the village, where the majority of its members spent most of the year. The capital, Gaborone, has a population of about , and is located in the southeast of the country, almost on the border with South Africa. The census showed life expectancy of Less and less water flowed through the western side of the Okavango marshes during the 20th century, so that the square-mile square-km Lake Ngami —famous a century ago—is today dry and almost unrecognizable as a lake. The Botswanan government would like more manufacturing companies to locate in the country, therefore it is focusing on the natural resources that may be used in manufacturing operations. Neil Parsons The economic expansion of previous decades slowed and even reversed in the early s but bounced back within a few years. Finally, beyond the cattle-posts there were hunting lands. The hardveld region consists of rocky hill ranges and areas of shallow sand cover in eastern Botswana. Education Since independence, enrollment at all levels of education has increased steadily, and by the 21st century almost half the adult population had completed primary schooling. Those roads also brought Christian missionaries to Botswana and Boer trekkers who settled in the Transvaal to the east.
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