Some non-Western societies, however, are more tolerant and even encourage men to behave like women and women to act like men. As the first comprehensive attempt to examine the phenomenon of cross dressing, it will be of interest to students and scholars of social history, sociology, nursing, and women's studies. This phenomenon, according to Vern L. While the authors dash across an array of cultures, they come back with handfuls of general trends in history. Overall, it is mentally taxing in the best of possible ways and a launching pad for much intellectual curiosity.
The majority of female to male crossdressers were of low socioeconomic status. For instance, I found that some pastors cannot seperate homosexuality and crossing, they group the behavior as one. One example highlighted was a woman who in 90 B. Third gender individuals, used here as an umbrella term including all substantially gender variant lifestyles, were often understood within a religious or shamanistic context, even within some Hindu and Muslim cultures. This began to change in the past years, but before then it was the state of affairs. This book, widely deemed a classic in its field, is the culmination of thirty years of research by the Bulloughs into gender impersonation and cross dressing. Basically, this work begins with a ton of history, and ends with a ton of science, all the while having a sharp sociological eye. Their groundbreaking findings will be of interest to anyone involved in the debate over nature versus nurture, and have implications not only for scholars in the various social sciences and sex and gender studies, but for educators, nurses, physicians, feminists, gays, lesbians, and general readers. The amount of information is overwhelming, and yet it becomes obvious that it is only the tip of the iceberg regarding a perennial human behavior that is certainly not going to disappear! The latter were also more often successful in their crossdressing as far as passing goes, since it was for a more functional purpose of survival than the man dressed only for a frivolous ball or theatrical jest. In the past, however, cross dressing was for the most part practiced more often by women than men. Also illustrating the historical class connection to who was able to crossdress openly are the many examples explored of men of royalty who were very free to do what they wished even if it included female crossdressing. This work will be of more personal interest to anyone who identifies as a transvestite or transsexual or who has been classified by medical and psychiatric professionals as suffering from gender dysphoria. In contemporary American culture, the behavior occurs most often among male heterosexuals and homosexuals, sometimes for erotic pleasure, sometimes not. From the beginning, it makes it starkly apparent that gender variance expressed through clothing and appearance can be found in virtually all times and places and that there is no singular reason for doing it nor way of manifesting it. In times such as the Roman Empire and today in some Third World countries, males are prized more highly than females and as a result, there is a tendency to classify any child with sexual ambiguities as male, without having them undergo careful examination. What I found most interesting though, was the large number of homosexual crossdressers who carried out their practice in the 19th and early 20th centuries not because it was an accurate reflection of how they felt as individuals but merely as a way to rationalize their unaccepted gay behavior to themselves and the world at large. They suggest that one way of coping with the perplexing existence of those not conforming to traditional gender roles is to attribute special powers to them, whether positive, negative, or often a combination of both. They also look down at men who crossdress as sinners, during the time of jesus, men and women wore robes. Their status was a given, no one would question or threaten it, while lower class men with such a desire had to find more covert outlets. People who have never studied the topic of crossdressing, especially those who may be closed-minded to it, might not guess that it was not until the late eighteenth century that crossdressing was seen by society as an indication of homosexuality. Bullough and Bonnie Bullough, has implications for any understanding of the changing relationships between the sexes in the twentieth century. Cross dressing, gender impersonation, and long-term masquerades of the opposite sex are commonplace throughout history. The book analyzes the various sexualities of crossdressers. Even more interesting was the fact that some of the first transsexuals also underwent transition for the same reason, only to find that when they became fully women they no longer were attracted to men—they continued to be attracted to same-sex individuals!
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