However, intersex surgery has long-term consequences for affected individuals. These women exhibit a stocky constitution no spurt of growth during puberty and a characteristic skin fold at the neck pterygium colli. In 46,XY male pseudohermaphroditism , individuals have ambiguous or female external genitalia but the chromosomal constitution and reproductive organs of a male, though the testes may be malformed or absent. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: This VCUG shows that what appeared externally to be a urethra on the penis of a baby with hypospadias is actually a persistent urogenital sinus the undivided chamber consisting of the developing urethra and vagina. This measure is therefore controversial. The baby may have both cells with 46 XY chromosomes and cells with 46 XX chromosomes.
The baby may have both cells with 46 XY chromosomes and cells with 46 XX chromosomes. Hermaphroditic animals—mostly invertebrates such as worms , bryozoans moss animals , trematodes flukes , snails , slugs , and barnacles —are usually parasitic, slow-moving, or permanently attached to another animal or plant. This condition has been called hermaphroditism after the greek god Hermes and goddes Aphrodite and it is one of many causes of intersex. Treatment of intersex in humans depends upon the age at which the diagnosis is made. There is, however, no uniform syndrome, but rather the definition depends on the genotype of the individual. In older individuals the accepted gender may be reinforced by the appropriate surgical procedures and by hormonal therapy. The testes are present and produce AMH, so that the paramesonephric duct atrophies. Such conditions are extremely rare in humans. The external genitalia are normal and feminine, but the internal genitalia are incompletely developed with atrophied ovaries. However, they develop breasts during puberty and menstruate and in only rare cases actually produce sperm. The reason is an exposure of the fetus to androgens during the first trimester of pregnancy. Affected individuals have sex chromosomes showing male-female mosaicism where one individual possesses both the male XY and female XX chromosome pairs. These women exhibit a stocky constitution no spurt of growth during puberty and a characteristic skin fold at the neck pterygium colli. Therapeutically, a hormone substitution is begun already in childhood. They have a male phenotype. Because the production of testosterone fails to occur in puberty, development of the secondary male sexual characteristics also does not occur. Individuals with a 46,XX chromosome complement usually have ambiguous external genitalia with a sizable phallus and are therefore often reared as males. At puberty the development of the breasts does not occur and the patients have a primary amenorrhoea. Later in life, for example, the person may not be satisfied with the results of surgery and may not identify with the assigned gender. Due to missing androgen sensibility, though, the mesonephric tubules degenerate. Certain genes, which influence the development of the testes, the production of sex hormones and growth, are localized on the X chromosome. Gonadal tissue of both genders is present in various patterns: When a mutation blocks the synthesis of testosterone, the structures that depend on this hormone for their differentiation, e. The reconstruction of female genitalia was more readily performed than the reconstruction of male genitalia, so ambiguous individuals often were made to be female. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:
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